Syntax and Types

Here is a toy GameLisp program which calculates the first thirty Fibonacci numbers:

(let fibs (arr 0 1))

(while (< (len fibs) 31)
  (push! fibs (+ [fibs -1] [fibs -2])))

(prn [fibs -1]) ; prints 832040

In this chapter, we will describe GameLisp's syntax in full; explain why it's so different from the syntax of languages like Rust; and start to think about the unique advantages which come from those differences.

Homoiconicity

All programming languages have something called an abstract syntax tree (AST): a data representation of a program's source code. The AST is usually hidden inside the compiler, where the programmer can't interact with it directly.

For example, this fragment of Rust source code...


#![allow(unused_variables)]
fn main() {
foo.bar(1)
}

...could be represented by this (imaginary) AST data structure:


#![allow(unused_variables)]
fn main() {
Expression::MethodCall {
	callee: Identifier("foo"),
	method_name: Identifier("bar"),
	arguments: vec![
		Expression::Literal(Literal::Int(1))
	]
}
}

You've probably also encountered text-based data interchange formats, like JSON or TOML. They provide a way for us to store common data structures, like arrays, hash tables, booleans and strings, in a human-readable file format which is easy to edit.

For example, this fragment of JSON describes an array which contains each of the integers from 0 to 4 inclusive:

[0, 1, 2, 3, 4]

GameLisp, like all Lisp languages, is homoiconic. This means that its AST is made out of simple, primitive data types like arrays and booleans - the same data types which you might encounter in a JSON file. Let's look more closely at the first line of our Fibonacci program:

(let fibs (arr 0 1))

This is just the text representation of an array with these three elements:

  • The symbol let
  • The symbol fibs
  • A nested array, with these three elements:
    • The symbol arr
    • The integer 0
    • The integer 1

A comparable JSON fragment would be:

["let", "fibs", ["arr", 0, 1]]

In other words, in GameLisp, code is data and data is code. A GameLisp program is not defined by a block of text - instead, it's defined by a tree of simple data-types. That tree could have been read from a text file, but it could just as well have been generated from nothing by a GameLisp program, or deserialized from a binary file using Serde, or any number of other possibilities.

A flowchart showing the generation of ASTs in Rust and GameLisp

Expansion

There's no sense in denying it: building programs out of array literals causes them to have a relatively ugly syntax. Why is GameLisp designed this way?

The big advantage is that, when code is data, it becomes much easier to write code which creates or modifies other code on your behalf. There's no need to mess around with an AST or manipulate the raw text of your program - it's all just arrays!

For example, here's a GameLisp program which reads in a GameLisp source file, performs gettext‑style localization on it (replacing English string literals with French string literals based on a one-to-one mapping listed in a file), and then runs the program:

(let replacements (parse-1 (read-file "en-to-fr.glsp")))
(let source (parse-all (read-file "source.glsp")))

(let-fn recursively-translate (val)
  (match val
    (coll : (or arr? tab?)
      (map-syntax recursively-translate coll))
    (st : str?
      (or [replacements (? st)] st))
    (val
      val)))

(eval-multi (recursively-translate source))

To make this kind of code-generation more convenient, all GameLisp code is automatically put through an "expansion pass" just before being run. The expansion pass inspects each array in the program; checks whether that array's first element is the name of a macro (a function which transforms GameLisp source code into different GameLisp source code); and if so, uses that macro to transform the array into something else.

Unlike Rust macros, GameLisp macros are indistinguishable from the language's built-in syntax. This gives you the ability to profoundly customise the language - we'll explore some of the possibilities in the Macros chapter.

Representable Types

GameLisp is a dynamically-typed language. Memory locations like global variables, table fields and function arguments always store a single generic "value", which can belong to any of sixteen different primitive types. The full set of types is summarized below.

Of these sixteen types, nine of them can be losslessly converted into text and then read back in by the parser. We say that they are "representable", because they have an exact text representation. Valid GameLisp source code is entirely made out of these representable types.

nil

nil is the type of a value which is absent, uninitialized or undefined. In Rust terms, it takes on the roles of both None and ().

It only has one value, which is represented as #n.

bool

bool is the type of a boolean value: either true (represented as #t) or false (represented as #f).

When testing whether or not a value is true (for example, when deciding how an if expression should branch), we consider #f and #n to be "falsy" values, and all other values to be "truthy".

int, flo

The int type is a 32-bit signed integer number: an i32.

The flo type is a 32-bit floating-point number: an f32.

The text representation for numbers is almost identical to their representation in Rust. You can embed underscores in numbers, and integers can be prefixed with 0b, 0o or 0x to change their base.

There are only a few small changes compared to Rust's syntax:

  • Type suffixes, like _i8 or _f32, are forbidden.
  • Infinities are represented as +inf.0 and -inf.0.
  • "Not a number" is represented as nan.0.

We'll discuss these types in more detail in the Numbers chapter.

sym

The sym type is a symbol, also known as an interned string.

GameLisp uses symbols to represent identifiers and keywords in an efficient way. In the declaration (let var-name 0), both let and var-name are symbols. Representing them as symbols rather than strings makes several basic operations much faster: comparing one identifier to another, looking up a global variable, parsing a keyword from a file, and so on.

A symbol's name is a sequence of one or more of the following characters: a to z, A to Z, 0 to 9, !, $, %, &, *, +, -, ., /, :, <, =, >, ?, ^, ~ or _. A symbol can optionally be suffixed with a single #.

This opens up a much richer selection of identifiers, compared to Rust. Any of the following symbols would be valid names for a variable:

push!
int?
name=
foo:bar
-
//
1+
&$+%~#

When the parser encounters a sequence of characters which could represent a symbol, or could represent a number or abbreviation, then the number or abbreviation will take priority. This means that not all symbols are representable. The symbol -10 can exist, but if you write it to a file, it will be read back in as a number instead.

char

The char type is a character. Its storage is identical to a Rust char.

Characters are represented by a backslash followed by the character itself - for example, \a, \(, or \🦀.

Certain whitespace characters are represented by a backslash followed by their name: \space, \tab, \newline, \return, and \nul.

You can represent an arbitrary unicode character as either...

  • \xNN, where NN is a hexadecimal value from 00 to 7f inclusive.
  • \u{NN}, where the curly braces may enclose anywhere from one to six hexadecimal digits.

str

The str type is a text string.

The representation of strings is identical to a Rust string literal, including all of the same escape sequences. Raw strings, like r##"text"##, are supported.

Strings, characters and symbols are all discussed together in the Strings and Text chapter.

arr

The arr type is an array of arbitrary values. More specifically, it's a double-ended queue, similar to VecDeque in Rust.

An array is represented by the open-parenthesis (, followed by the representation of zero or more values, followed by the close-parenthesis ).

For example, an array containing squares of the first five positive integers would be represented as (1 4 9 16 25). An empty array would be represented as ().

The Arrays chapter has more details.

tab

The tab type is a table (specifically, a HashMap) which maps values to values.

A table is represented by #(, followed by zero or more key-value pairs, each with the same representation as an array of length two, followed by the close-parenthesis ).

For example, #((a b) (100 200)) represents a table which contains the value b bound to the key a, and the value 200 bound to the key 100.

See the Tables chapter for more.

Whitespace

The parser ignores whitespace, except for marking the boundary between one token and the next. All comments are parsed as whitespace.

A line comment is introduced with a single ; and continues until the next newline.

A block comment begins with #| and ends with |#. Block comments can be nested. An unterminated block comment is a syntax error.

Prefixing a value with #; will turn that entire value into a comment. This can be a convenient way to comment out code:

(when (< a 100)
  (new-handler (+ a 1))
  #;(when handler-enabled?
    (old-handler)))

The comma , is a whitespace character - this can be helpful for visually breaking up long sequences into smaller groups.

(let a b, c d, e f) ; easier to read
(let a b c d e f)   ; harder to read

Abbreviations

Some patterns appear so frequently in GameLisp programs that they've been given dedicated syntax. All of these abbreviations represent an array. For example, if you try to print the two-element array (splay val), it will be printed as ..val.

The abbreviations are:

AbbreviationRepresents
'val(quote val)
`val(backquote val)
~val(unquote val)
[x y](access x y)
..val(splay val)
@val(atsign val)
.val(meth-name val)

In addition, we use curly braces for string interpolation. When a string contains curly braces, it actually represents an array rather than a string. These two lines are exactly equivalent:

"text {a}{b} {c d}"
(template-str "text " a "" b " " c d)

Curly-brace characters in a string can be escaped by doubling them, as in {{ or }}. Raw strings cannot be interpolated.

Type Summary

The seven non-representable primitive types are each discussed in future chapters. For now, a quick summary of all of val's possible types:

NameMeaningTruthy?Reference?
nilAbsent or undefined valueNoNo
boolBooleanVariesNo
int32-bit signed integerYesNo
flo32-bit floating-point numberYesNo
charCharacterYesNo
symSymbolYesYes
arrArrayYesYes
strStringYesYes
tabTableYesYes
iterIteratorYesYes
objObjectYesYes
classClassYesYes
fnFunctionYesYes
coroCoroutineYesYes
rfnRust functionYesYes
rdataRust dataYesYes

Abstract Types

Abstract types group together multiple primitive types which share a common API.

Abstract TypeAPIConcrete Types
numNumberint, flo
dequeDouble-ended queuearr, str
callableFunction-call receiverfn, rfn, class
expanderMacro expanderfn, rfn
iterableIterablearr, str, tab, coro, iter